List of Glossary Terms

The PDSnet Glossary of Terms contains definitions and explanations for over 2600 financial market terms. These definitions are constantly kept up-to-date with current topical examples from the markets. They are also updated for changes in legislation and current events like COVID19 and the July 2021 civil unrest.

The terms in the Glossary are directly linked to all PDSnet articles, confidential reports, lecture modules and other material. This means that a client reading one of our publications can immediately see which terms are defined in the Glossary and click through to read the definition. Terms within the definitions in the glossary are similarly linked, which gives the Glossary an enormous educational depth share market investors.

A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z Numeric Latest


OBV

This was the first volume-based technical method developed by Joseph Granville. The method begins with an arbitrary total like 100 000 to which the... read more

 
OCTOBER EFFECT

A name given to the fear which investors have for October month which has been associated with three major crashes - 1907, 1929 and 1987. Ironically,... read more

 
ODD LOTS

This refers to transactions in shares in quantities other than round hundreds. With the advent of on-line trading and the further computerisation of the... read more

 
OECD

An organisation of 37 mostly developed countries formed in 1961 to improve world trade. The OECD maintains a tax convention for taxation rights between countries... read more

 
OFF BALANCE SHEET

Commitments and potential liabilities and assets which are not reflected on a company's balance sheet. These would be leases which... read more

 
OFF BALANCE SHEET FINANCING

A dubious accounting practice whereby a company seeks to hide the true state of its indebtedness by either using operating leases to acquire the... read more

 
OFF FARM
The amount of stock held by non-producers including supplies held at mills, elevators, terminals, and processors.
 
OFF SETTING
This means acquiring an opposite contract to completely eliminate obligations in the current contract. Thus a person with a put option could buy the equivalent call option and then... read more
 
OFFER

An indication of the willingness of an investor to sell a share at a given price; the opposite of bid. Offers are normally placed on... read more

 
OFFER PRICE

The price at which an investor who is holding a share (or other security) is willing to sell. Also referred to as the "offer price." The JSE's... read more

 
OIL

A hydro-carbon liquid deriving originally from the fossilised remains of ancient forests of trees. These are petro-chemical oils that are used to make petroleum... read more

 
OLIGOPOLY

An industry which is dominated by a few very large players who co-operate on the fixing of prices and allocation of contract work. Price fixing and work allocation... read more

 
ON FARM
The amount of stock held by producers.
 
ON-BALANCE VOLUME

This was the first volume-based technical method developed by Joseph Granville. The method begins with an arbitrary total like 100 000 to which the... read more

 
ONLINE TRADING

Buying and selling of securities over the Internet. A number of stockbroking firms are offering the ability to buy and sell shares over the internet.... read more

 
OPEC

Commonly known as OPEC, this consists mostly of Arab countries that control the bulk of the world's oil exports. OPEC has managed in the past to... read more

 
OPEN

The price of the first transaction of the day in any share or security. The opening price is critical to the drawing of candlestick charts.... read more

 
OPEN ECONOMY

This is an economy which allows free trade both internally and externally with its trading partners. Such an economy has the minimum of trade barriers... read more

 
OPEN ENDED FUND

A mutual fund which has no limit on the number of investors who participate or the amounts which they invest. This is as opposed to a closed... read more

 
OPEN INTEREST

The total number of futures or options contracts of a given commodity that have not yet been offset by an opposite futures or option transaction... read more

 
OPEN MARKET OPERATIONS

The buying and selling of government securities (mainly bonds) in the open market by the Reserve Bank in order to control the money supply.... read more

 
OPEN ORDER

An order still pending or on the books of a stockbroker to buy or sell securities, but has not yet been executed. An open order will remain... read more

 
OPEN OUTCRY

A method of public auction for making bids and offers in the trading pits of futures exchanges. Stock exchanges also used to operate... read more

 
OPEN POSITION
An investment or derivative contract which is currently held or owned, often known as an "open position". An open position implies that the investor is exposed... read more
 
OPEN TRADE EQUITY
The gain or loss on open futures positions.
 
OPENING CALL
A period at the opening of a futures market in which the price for each contract is established by open outcry.
 
OPENING PRICE

The price of the first transaction of the day in any share or security. The opening price is critical to the drawing of candlestick charts.... read more

 
OPENING PRINT
The first price of a share that comes across the ticker for a trading session.
 
OPENING RANGE
The range of prices that occur during the first 30 seconds to five minutes of trading, depending on the preference of the individual analyst.
 
OPENING STOCK

The stock which is in a company's warehouse at the beginning of the accounting period - which should be the same as the closing stock... read more

 
OPERATING CASH FLOW

The amount of cash which a company brings in from its sales or turnover minus interest, taxation and dividends paid,... read more

 
OPERATING EXPENSES

These are the expenses that a business incurs to keep it running such as salaries and office supplies. They do not include cost of goods sold, direct... read more

 
OPERATING INCOME

An income statement item usually immediately following the statement of turnover, but is not directly linked to it by calculation. Because finance... read more

 
OPERATING PROFIT MARGIN

A financial ratio calculated by taking the operating profit as a percentage of turnover. This shows how profitable the company is -... read more

 
OPERATIONAL UPDATE

Companies publish a variety of reports on their performance on the Stock Exchange News Service (SENS) and on their websites. Some of these are compulsory,... read more

 
OPINION

A description and assessment of a JSE-listed share prepared by the staff of PDSnet for the benefit of its clients. PDSnet staff are constantly... read more

 
OPPORTUNITY COST

Income foregone by the commitment of resources to another use. For example, if you use some of your capital to buy shares then you suffer the opportunity... read more

 
OPTIMISATION

A methodology by which a system is developed with rules tailored to fit the data in question precisely. A computer program can test every moving average... read more

 
OPTION CONTRACT

An option contract which gives the buyer the right, but not the obligation, to buy or sell a specified quantity of a commodity or a futures contract... read more

 
OPTION HOLDER
An investor who holds (owns) an option.
 
OPTION PREMIUM

The price a buyer pays (and a seller receives) for an option. Premiums are arrived at through open outcry. There are two components in determining... read more

 
OPTIONAL CASH PURCHASE
Buying additional shares made through the dividend reinvestment account.
 
ORDER

An instruction from a client to buy or sell a specified quantity of securities at a set price (limit), or at best, an instruction... read more

 
ORDINARY RESOLUTION

A resolution which requires the approval or 50% or more of the voting shares of a company. Typically this would be the appointment of directors,... read more

 
ORDINARY SHARE

Also sometimes called "equity" shares, these shares share in the profits and risks of the company. Unlike the fixed dividend... read more

 
ORDINARY SHARE CAPITAL
Capital of a company represented by the number of its ordinary shares.
 
ORDINARY SHAREHOLDERS' FUNDS

The funds which the ordinary shareholders have in a company. This can normally be calculated by subtracting the company's liabilities from... read more

 
ORE GRADE

The number of grams per ton of ore milled, usually in a gold mine or other precious metals mine. Mines are categorised by their average grade... read more

 
ORGANIC GROWTH

Growth from within the company's existing businesses - as opposed to growth by acquisition. Both types of growth can be good, but growth by acquisition... read more

 
ORGANISATION FOR ECONOMIC CO-OPERATION AND DEVELOPMENT

An organisation of 37 mostly developed countries formed in 1961 to improve world trade. The OECD maintains a tax convention for taxation rights between countries... read more

 
ORGANISATION OF PETROLEUM EXPORTING COUNTRIES

Commonly known as OPEC, this consists mostly of Arab countries that control the bulk of the world's oil exports. OPEC has managed in the past to... read more

 
ORGANISED EXCHANGE

A securities exchange that is properly formulated and run in accordance with an Act of Parliament. The Johannesburg Securities Exchange (JSE) is... read more

 
OSCILLATOR

A statistical term which refers to an indicator which moves above and below a set level - usually zero. Many line indicators are oscillators - like... read more

 
OTC

Trading of shares which are not listed on a formal stock exchange. In America there are about 80 000 companies that trade their shares... read more

 
OUT-OF-THE-MONEY

The situation where an investment cannot be sold for more than was paid for it. Thus, for example, if a share costs 1000c including your dealing... read more

 
OUTCOMES APPROACH BUDGET

An approach to budgeting adopted by the South African government which identifies 12 key outcomes. Those outcomes are: (1) Improved quality of basic education... read more

 
OUTPUT

The productivity of various sectors of the economy. Outputs are measured mostly by Statistics SA on a regular basis for each sector... read more

 
OUTSIDE DAY
A bottom candlestick reversal signal, this is a two candlestick pattern consisting of a large green candle enveloping a preceding red candle. This pattern implies that the trend... read more
 
OUTSIDE REVERSAL MONTH
A month in which the recent monthly trading range exceeds the previous month's range and closes opposite (reverses) the previous month's close.
 
OUTSIDE SHAREHOLDERS

A shareholding of less than 50% of the total issued share capital of a company. Companies work on the principle of majority rule - decisions... read more

 
OVER INVESTING

Beginners in the share market are typically guilty of over-investing in two ways - either they put too great a percentage of their available funds into... read more

 
OVER TRADING

Beginners in the share market are typically guilty of over-investing in two ways - either they put too great a percentage of their available funds into... read more

 
OVER-PRICED

This describes a share which has a market price in excess of its "real" value - in the opinion of the person who uses the term. The real value of... read more

 
OVER-REACTION
A situation which arises after news concerning a share is disseminated and investors push the price to levels beyond reasonable discounting of the news - i.e. they over-react.... read more
 
OVER-SUBSCRIBED

When a company raises new capital by selling shares to the public they invite applications for a limited quantity of shares. If the company... read more

 
OVER-THE-COUNTER

Trading of shares which are not listed on a formal stock exchange. In America there are about 80 000 companies that trade their shares... read more

 
OVER-VALUED

This describes a share which has a market price in excess of its "real" value - in the opinion of the person who uses the term. The real value of... read more

 
OVERALL INDEX

All stock exchanges have indexes which provide averages of the prices of their listed shares. These averages are normally... read more

 
OVERBOUGHT

A technical analysis term which indicates the degree to which a share's price has risen above its "real value". The real value of a... read more

 
OVERBOUGHT/OVERSOLD INDICATOR

An indicator that attempts to define when prices have moved too far and too fast in either direction and thus are vulnerable to a reaction. The OB/OS... read more

 
OVERDRAFT

A facility offered by commercial banks to their credit-worthy clients. Most companies finance their working capital requirements with an overdraft,... read more

 
OVERHANG

The value of unexecuted sell orders in the market at the close of trade. An excessive overhang of sell orders can be an indication of a crash... read more

 
OVERHEAD

A fixed expense which must be paid irrespective of the level of sales. Good examples are rent, salaries and telephones. These expenses are sometimes... read more

 
OVERHEADS

These are costs which a company has to pay, whether or not they sell anything. So expenses like rent, telephone, salaries and so on. This... read more

 
OVERSOLD
Market prices that have declined too steeply and too fast.
 
OWNER'S EQUITY

That portion of share capital which carries risk, and shares in profits through the dividends which are dependent on profitability.... read more